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A simple, elegant desktop BSD Operating System
GhostBSD provides a simple desktop-oriented operating system based on FreeBSD with MATE and OS packages for simplicity. In addition, GhostBSD has a selection of commonly used software preinstalled to make it easy on your computing journey.
GhostBSD uses the GTK environment to provide a beautiful look and a comfortable experience on the modern BSD platform, offering a natural and native Unix work environment.
GhostBSD is built on top of FreeBSD code, and its roots go back to the University of California Berkeley Unix Research. Historically, it was referred to as "BSD Unix" or "Berkeley Unix." However, today it is called BSD for Berkeley Software Distribution.
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GhostBSD makes FreeBSD a little less frightening for the Linux loyal
Traditional unix sanity plus your choice of mate or xfce.
The first new version of GhostBSD in over a year is here. If you want to try FreeBSD, Linux's most credible rival and competitor in the FOSS OS marketplace, there's no easier way.
GhostBSD, now at version 23.10.1 based on FreeBSD 13.2, has been around since 2010. Although the project has gone through some changes in that time, it is once again what it started out as – a distribution of FreeBSD that provides the sort of friendly graphical environment and easy installation modern Linux users have come to expect.
It boots straight into a graphical desktop and has an easy graphical installation program, which has been basic in Linux for a decade and a half, but remains unexplored territory in BSD-land.
GhostBSD with MATE provides a familiar environment which old-time GNOME users will find comfortable
From 2018 to 2021, GhostBSD switched to being a downstream distribution of TrueOS instead, and changed its version numbering scheme. Version 11.1 was succeeded by the TrueOS-based version 18.10. True OS was itself an easy-to-use graphical distribution of FreeBSD. Originally called PC-BSD, in 2006 it was acquired by TrueNAS creators iXsystems , renamed to TrueOS in 2016, and shut down in 2020. Subsequently, the GhostBSD team switched back to FreeBSD itself with version 21.04.27. So this is a relatively mature distro with some 27 releases over 13 years.
TrueOS – as its rather bombastic name suggests – was an ambitious project that made some substantial additions over and above the basic FreeBSD OS, developing its own desktop environment called Lumina and its own software packaging system, PBI. To be fair, when the project started, FreeBSD didn't include a package manager. The current one became official as of FreeBSD 10.
GhostBSD is somewhat more modest in scope than its former upstream. It offers just two of the most mainstream traditional desktops from the Linux world, MATE and Xfce. These two editions are separate downloads, and both are a great deal more complete than the very minimal Lumina desktop, which is barely more than a window and file manager. GhostBSD adds some of the standard tools that Linux users are familiar with – Firefox, VLC, and the Transmission BitTorrent client, plus the desktops' usual collections of accessories.
The Software Station is a little unpolished but it's a lot easier than navigating the 'ports' tree from the shell
It also provides some simple but useful system admin tools: a system update tool, a preferences app called Control Center, a graphical package manager called Software Station, and some of the other basic niceties that Linux take for granted but are still a novelty in the mostly text-oriented BSD world. The default shell is fish , although Bash is also available. Because this is FreeBSD, the default filesystem is ZFS.
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The Reg FOSS desk has been experimenting with GhostBSD since the last release, and we can report that it's substantially easier to install and configure than FreeBSD itself. We have been attempting to brush up our very meagre BSD skills since we looked at FreeBSD 13.1 last year, and now have a native bare-metal install on an old Thinkpad T420, where it runs very nicely indeed. Getting it to dual-boot cleanly alongside both Windows and Linux on our testbed machines has, thus far, defeated us – but GhostBSD made this achievable, even if with last June's version it wasn't exactly easy .
GhostBSD 23.10 is based on the latest full FreeBSD release, version 13.2, although it has arrived perilously close to FreeBSD 14, which is still in Release Candidate status – currently expected next week.
There aren't many other FreeBSD distros around. There was FuryBSD, but that project shut down in 2020, although a distro based on it, known as the Hello System , is still going. There is also Midnight BSD – we took a very brief look six months ago, and found little to recommend. Finally there's Nomad BSD , but that's a slightly different beast, designed to run directly from a bootable USB key rather than being permanently installed onto a PC.
As such, GhostBSD is the easiest and most polished desktop version of FreeBSD around – but bear in mind that there really isn't much competition. The Hello System has great promise, but it hasn't got to version 1.0 yet, and the last release is missing features that were present in version 0.5 , such as a desktop dock.
FreeBSD is quite different from Linux, and even experienced Linux users will find themselves lost sometimes. A lot of familiar tools are missing, such as this vulture's favorite shell text editor Tilde – but GhostBSD does offer other familiar subsitutes, such as joe and nano . However, as vast sprawling modern subsystems such as systemd, snap, Wayland, and Flatpak take over more and more of Linux, FreeBSD offers a refuge where you will find traditional Unix sanity. And for now, GhostBSD is by far the easiest way to put it on a PC alongside some other operating systems. ®
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there's nothing wrong with easy mode —
Not actually linux distro review deux: ghostbsd, freebsd-derived ghostbsd welcomes users directly into a full desktop experience..
Jim Salter - Apr 13, 2020 10:00 am UTC
I think it's important for BSD-curious users to know of easier, gentler alternatives, so I did a little looking around and settled on GhostBSD for a follow-up review.
GhostBSD is based on TrueOS , which itself derives from FreeBSD Stable. It was originally a Canadian distro, but—like most successful distributions—it has transcended its country of origin and can now be considered worldwide. Significant GhostBSD development takes place now in Canada, Italy, Germany, and the United States.
The history of desktop-oriented BSD distros is a turbulent one. For several years, Kris Moore's PC-BSD was the go-to for "I want BSD, but I also want a ready-to-go desktop." Eventually, ixSystems —home of the FreeNAS storage distro, and the company Moore is vice president of engineering for—came to rely heavily on the server-side features developed into PC-BSD.
The need at ixSystems for the foundation of PC-BSD without the associated desktop led to a rename and a fork. PC-BSD's underpinnings became TrueOS, and the desktop-friendly distribution—now based on TrueOS—became Project Trident .
This state of affairs didn't last long. A year later, Project Trident declared unhappiness with TrueOS and BSD in general—mostly due to hardware support, or lack thereof. In January 2020, Trident rebased itself on Void Linux , which its developers found to be "the most BSD-like" of the potential Linux upstream distros they examined.
Project Trident's departure for more Linux-y waters left several potential contenders for a desktop-focused BSD distribution. These include FuryBSD , MidnightBSD , DesktopBSD , and GhostBSD itself.
I've tested PC-BSD fairly extensively in the past but have no history with any of the current desktop BSD choices. I chose GhostBSD for a first look, solely due to its prominence in Google search results for "desktop BSD distro."
Live installation environment
- GhostBSD starts up with a nice BSD-style ASCII splash and menu. Jim Salter
- The next menu allows you to pick a GPU video driver configuration. We're in a VM, so I picked vesa here. Jim Salter
- After selecting vesa video, I was at a fully functional live desktop in two seconds or less. Jim Salter
GhostBSD's installation process is a pretty radical departure from FreeBSD's, although the underlying roots are still there. After defaulting or selecting multi-user boot, the user is presented with an ncurses ASCII menu allowing X (the graphical display server) configuration.
It's a bit of a shame that the installer isn't yet capable of simply autodetecting the graphics environment the way typical Linux installers do. But to be fair, the manual selection could also make things easier for slightly wonky hardware—the option to fallback to simple vesa mode is staring you right in the face, after all, should you try a direct Intel/AMD/Nvidia driver and fail.
I'm doing an installation in a virtual machine, so I selected vesa. Two seconds or less after hitting enter, a fully functional MATE -based live desktop was up and running, with a link to the installer script prominently placed on the desktop. I didn't mess around in the live desktop—I double-clicked the installer immediately.
- GhostBSD's installer, like FreeBSD's, offers you the chance for ZFS root—including multiple-disk topologies. Jim Salter
- GhostBSD doesn't offer a fake "raid10 vdev". I picked a single mirror for now—I can add my second two disks to the pool after installation. Jim Salter
- GhostBSD doesn't pretend that a real user account is "optional"—we're required to create one, and the process is short and sweet. Jim Salter
- With disk configuration and user setup complete, we're off to the races! Jim Salter
- GhostBSD missed a minor lick here—after installation completes, it doesn't ask us to reboot. It just dumps us unceremoniously back out to the desktop. Jim Salter
GhostBSD's installation process is tremendously more straightforward than FreeBSD's. After double-clicking the installer, you're asked to select a disk configuration. Like FreeBSD, we're offered the chance for a ZFS root setup, including multiple disk topology.
The mouse was, for some reason, extremely unresponsive and erratic in this menu and required significant patience. This is probably an artifact of the VM installation; I strongly suspect it would not have been an issue on bare metal.
The options I was given here were a little different from FreeBSD's. Instead of telling me little white lies about what a vdev is, GhostBSD asked me to select a "pool type." The options available were single disk, two disk mirror, three disk RAIDz1 (similar to RAID5—a stripe with single parity), four or five disk RAIDz2 (similar to RAID6—a stripe with dual parity), or "2+ disk stripe."
"Force ZFS 4K block size" is an optional checkbox here, and I made sure it was selected. My disks are advanced format (4K sector size) disks, so if ZFS installs with 512-byte sectors, performance will be bad. Unfortunately, it doesn't seem that the checkbox setting was actually honored—more on that later.
Although I wanted a pool of mirrors eventually, one two-disk mirror was fine for the moment. I selected a single two-disk mirror, with plans to zpool add my remaining two disks as another mirror vdev after installation completed.
With disk configuration complete, GhostBSD asked me to create a user account. It did not present this as an "optional" process, and it didn't drag the process out, either. Hostname, friendly username, real username, password, and default shell are all configured on a single screen, along with a password strength identifier. The default shell offered was fish—I don't know fish, but I left it as-is to get the normal out-of-box experience.
Like just about every password strength identifier, the one in GhostBSD's user setup screen was pretty useless—it informed me that "Password1!" was a strong password. Oh, well.
With both the machine and myself named and a nice "strong" password entered, GhostBSD got on with the process of installing itself. Installation did not take very long.
Although this was in general a very simple, easy, and friendly setup experience, GhostBSD's installer dropped a minor note at the very end. Once the installer had finished, it just dumped me back out at the desktop, without offering to reboot—and without letting me know I'd need to reboot, in order to get into my freshly installed system.
This isn't likely to throw many people who are actually interested in trying out a BSD, of course—but it's an easy paper cut to fix.
- Rebooting brings you into a fresh new MATE environment. Although... something's missing. Hmm— Jim Salter
- I installed Firefox using pkg in the terminal, but it didn't show up on the desktop—and I still hadn't figured out what I was missing. So I browsed to it in /usr/local/bin. Jim Salter
- Now that I'd confirmed where Firefox was, I right-clicked an empty spot on the desktop to create a launcher for it. Jim Salter
- Ta-da! We've got a launcher for Firefox on the desktop, and it works—as does Firefox. Jim Salter
First boot into the new GhostBSD system was a bit of a mixed bag. GhostBSD booted rapidly and got right into the desktop. Applications also popped open instantly, with none of FreeBSD's feeling of lag or sluggishness.
The question was, where were the application launchers? I didn't realize it yet, but the top MATE panel had crashed, leaving a blank black bar behind. The empty black panel blended into the default background well enough that I spent a confused first few minutes thinking the system was just a bit on the primitive side.
Right-clicking an empty area on the desktop offered me an Open in Terminal option in the context menu, so I did that. Although I was using fish , an unfamiliar shell, it didn't get in the way—the delete key wasn't a beeping tilde machine like FreeBSD's version of sh , and the basic functionality one would expect from a shell was intact.
From here, I became root with the su command ( sudo is also preinstalled and available in GhostBSD). After stumbling once on syntax— pkg install , not pkg add! —installing Firefox from the command line went exactly as it should, and rapidly. GhostBSD uses its own repository— http://pkg.us.ghostbsd.org/stable was preconfigured for me—and it had plenty of bandwidth available.
There was no Firefox icon on the desktop after pkg finished doing its thing, and I still hadn't twigged to the crashed MATE top panel, so I right-clicked the desktop again. Create Launcher is another of the context menu options there, so I did that, browsed to /usr/local/bin , and presto—there was a shiny new Firefox icon on the desktop, which did just what it should.
Firefox's application launch was very snappy, again unlike my experience with FreeBSD and Gnome3. In fact, Firefox launched on GhostBSD a bit quicker than it does in my host operating system, Ubuntu 19.10.
Finding the missing bits
- Eventually I realized why something seemed missing—the blank black bar at the top of the desktop was a crashed panel. Jim Salter
- Firefox WAS available in a user-friendly way after pkg installation—it was in Applications, inside the crashed MATE panel I hadn't recognized. Jim Salter
- Diving back into the terminal, I add my second two disks to the pool. Unfortunately, I also notice GhostBSD didn't live up to its promise to use 4K sectors. Jim Salter
I was still frustrated with how primitive everything seemed, however snappy. Surely everything didn't need to be done by hand like this? And where were the system tools—a GUI-based package selection system, volume controls, and so forth?
Finally, I spotted the small black area at the top of the desktop and right-clicked it. This produced a new context menu, most importantly including Reset Panel . Oh, hey, how about that—there's all my missing functionality!
With the panel reset, it was obvious what the procedure was supposed to be here. A new user should have been able to click the Applications menu, go to Internet, and find Firefox in there. A single-click opens Firefox from the panel; a right-click offers the option to create a new launcher for it either on the desktop or in the top panel itself.
This is also where missing tools like system information, volume controls, and so forth had been lurking. GhostBSD suddenly felt a lot more functional—it had just needed one shrewd kick to get going.
With everything working properly, next I dove back into the MATE Terminal to add my remaining pair of disks. Before doing so, I checked ashift , the ZFS property that defines the minimum block size on disk. Unfortunately, despite having made certain the "Force ZFS 4K block size" option was checked during installation, I discovered ashift set to 9—meaning 2^9, or 512-byte sectors.
As snappy as GhostBSD felt so far, it would have been even better if it had been using the correct hardware blocksize like I asked it to. Fortunately, the VM's underlying storage is a very fast solid state pool, so the omission hadn't made things too painful.
Unfortunately, ashift is immutable once set. So I sighed, did a zpool add tank mirror /dev/vtbd2 /dev/vtbd3 to get my remaining pair of virtual disks added to the pool, and went on my way.
The disk sector size issue would have been a much bigger disappointment—and problem!—in real life, but it wasn't worth derailing a VM test for.
A quick look at GhostBSD's Control Center
- GhostBSD's Control Center offers links to administrative tasks, such as printing, audio, and software installation. Jim Salter
- Software Station is GhostBSD's graphical package manager. It's functional, but primitive as a desktop app—we can't resize its over-wide columns here. Jim Salter
- Software Station is organized into categories FreeBSD veterans will immediately recognize from the ports tree. We found gimp under graphics, checked it, and clicked Apply to install. Jim Salter
- A much-too-understated progress bar at the bottom shows us our progress installing Gimp. Jim Salter
Most of GhostBSD's MATE Control Center is quite pleasant and modern. One unfortunate exception is Software Station, GhostBSD's GUI-based package management app.
I don't want to oversell Software Station's problems, here—it's perfectly functional, although it is a bit primitive and could use a considerable amount of developer love. In particular, it desperately needs resizable columns.
Software Station is broken into categories that veteran FreeBSD users will immediately recognize from the ports tree. Each package's information is broken out into fixed-width columns—and the ones for Package Name, Version, and Size are all significantly wider than necessary. As a result, very little of the package descriptions are visible without scrolling horizontally right.
The Package Name column is littered with names like at-spi2-atk , eflite , py37-atspi , and so forth. Those names must be brief for command line management, but they won't mean much to a new user—or to many well-established users. Scrolling horizontally all the way right to read the friendly package description, in turn, hides everything but the version number and size.
Again, to be fair, we're in a VM here—and its resolution, 1024x768, would be absurdly low on bare metal. Much more data would be visible without scrolling on a full 1080p desktop. On the other hand, a budget laptop's 1366x768 display would have been nearly as cramped as this one.
Adding insult to injury, GhostBSD's vesa driver wouldn't let me choose a higher resolution than 1024x768 at all. Again, this wouldn't likely be an issue on real hardware—but it wouldn't have been an issue in a typical Linux VM, either.
GhostBSD is a perfectly reasonable choice for a desktop distribution. It still lags behind most of its mainstream Linux counterparts in one or two places, but I didn't discover any real show-stoppers or WTFs.
There were no obvious performance issues, and GhostBSD might in fact have been a little snappier than Ubuntu 19.10, the host operating system it was virtualized under. Audio worked out of the box, and with Firefox installed, YouTube videos played well.
Google Chrome is still going to be a no-go under GhostBSD—at least without truly Herculean efforts. I did search for Chrome installation stories, but all I found were "you can't have that under BSD" answers. This won't matter for YouTube, but it will present significant stumbling blocks for users who need Chrome plugins or streaming websites that depend on proprietary Chrome features.
I liked GhostBSD's ZFS installer dialog much better than FreeBSD's—but I was deeply disappointed in its failure to honor its own "Force ZFS 4K block size" checkbox. That would have been a major stumbling block and source of performance problems on a real installation and real hardware.
Most disks will truthfully report their own block size, and ZFS will honor it—but some, like the Samsung Pro SSDs in my workstation, lie through their teeth and claim to have 512 byte sectors. This is a legacy of Windows XP, which would cough up a hairball when presented with a disk with any hardware blocksize other than 512 byte.
A veteran ZFS user could likely work around the block size issue. We didn't test this specifically, but it should be relatively simple to pull a terminal after pool creation and before installation, destroy the pool GhostBSD created, and replace it with a new one with the proper ashift setting.
Absent a specific desire for BSD under the hood, I'd have a tough time recommending GhostBSD in place of one of the more mainstream Linux distributions. But that's a pretty high bar to hurdle, and I would not have any issues recommending GhostBSD to a user—even one new to Unix-like operating systems—who does specifically want a BSD-based desktop.
Most of the few warts I found in GhostBSD are eminently fixable, and polish is clearly important to its community and dev team. I suspect that the majority of the issues I discovered in this review will be fixed in its next release.
- GhostBSD's installer is pleasant, efficient, and mostly modern
- The MATE environment is well-fleshed out and functional
- The environment feels quick and snappy, without lag or sluggishness
- Going from zero to desktop is possible even for very new users
- As polished as GhostBSD is, it still lags behind mainstream Linux counterparts
- Support for proprietary user-focused software, like Chrome, is effectively nonexistent
- A new user who doesn't already "have BSD friends" will have a tougher time finding support
- Crashed MATE top panel on first boot
- Incorrect ZFS blocksize, despite checkbox that should have corrected it
- Software Station is primitive and difficult to navigate by modern standards
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If you want to try BSD, GhostBSD might be your best bet
GhostBSD offers the user-friendly MATE desktop environment.
BSD, or Berkeley Software Distribution (aka Berkeley Standard Distribution) is a discontinued operating system that was based on Research Unix. Originally called Berkeley UNIX, BSD was first developed in the late 70s and then, in the early 80s, it was adopted by some workstation vendors as an alternative to DEC Ultrix and Sun Microsystem's SunOS.
Eventually, BSD faded away but the code remained behind. In the early 90s, William and Lynne Jolitz developed a new port of BSD for Intel CPUs, calling their operating system 386BSD. Development for 386BSD slowed and eventually stalled. It was then that a small group of 386BSD users decided to keep the OS up to date, renaming the project FreeBSD and releasing the first iteration on November 1993.
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Over the years, I've toyed with FreeBSD, but it has received a mere fraction of my attention (compared to Linux). Part of the reason for that is FreeBSD isn't the most efficient operating system to install. Out of the box, FreeBSD installs as a command-line-only OS, for which you then have to jump through a few hoops to get a desktop environment installed.
Case in point, I was originally going to review FreeBSD but ran into trouble getting a desktop environment up and running as a VirtualBox virtual machine. I've done this before with a measure of success. But for some reason, the latest releases of both FreeBSD and GNOME aren't wanting to play well together.
After spending an hour or so attempting to get GNOME up and running on FreeBSD, I set that aside for now. Because I can be persistent, I decided to find a FreeBSD spin that makes it fairly easy for just about anyone to experience what a truly rock-solid operating system is.
The solution was GhostBSD .
GhostBSD uses the Mate desktop to create a user-friendly environment that is easy enough for anyone to use. You'll even find a GUI tool (called Software Station) for package management, which means you can work with GhostBSD without ever touching the command line. From the Software Station, you can install just about anything you need (even apps like Slack and Spotify).
Installing software with the GhostBSD Software Station.
Out of the box, you won't find a ton of pre-installed software. From the MATE menu, you'll find applications such as:
The standard MATE tools (such as Calculator, Font Viewer, Search Tool, Disk Usage Analyzer, System Monitor, and Terminal)
- Eye of MATE Image Viewer
- Transmission (BitTorrent client)
- Evolution (email/calendar/contacts/to-do)
- Atril Document Viewer
- Rhythmbox (music player)
- VLC Media Player
- Software Station (GUI frontend for the pkg package manager)
Other than a handful of utilities and system tools, that's it. As I mentioned earlier, thanks to the Software Station, you can install plenty of other applications.
My experience with GhostBSD
I was pleasantly surprised by how well GhostBSD performed. No, it's not as fast as, say, Fedora 39, but what you get in place of speed is as rock-solid an operating system as you'll ever experience.
That is not an overstatement. FreeBSD has long been heralded as one of the most reliable operating systems and is probably only bested by Slackware. And GhostBSD follows in those rather large shoes, while also making FreeBSD a bit more accessible to the average user.
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The developers of GhostBSD took the right path on the desktop front by opting for MATE. Why? Because MATE is a user interface that will make anyone feel immediately at home. It has a top-bar menu system, a bottom panel to house minimized applications and the workspace pager, a system tray, and desktop launchers.
In the top bar menu system, you'll find three menus:
- Applications - where you launch any of the installed applications.
- Place - where you can easily access folders and locations like Home, Desktop, Computer, Network, etc.
- System - where you access the system tools, such as the updater, various preferences, the Control Center, and the power options (lock screen, log out, and shutdown).
You can access all kinds of helpful tools from the System menu in the top bar.
Although I mentioned that GhostBSD isn't as speedy as Fedora 39, that's not to say it's a slouch. This FreeBSD spin is pretty fast. Applications open quickly, boots and reboots don't take as long as what you're used to (aka Windows or MacOS), upgrades don't take too long, and network connections are as fast as you are accustomed to on your LAN.
I have zero complaints about GhostBSD. That this operating system greatly simplifies the installation and usage of FreeBSD says it all and I wouldn't hesitate to recommend GhostBSD to anyone who places a high priority on stability because you'd be hard-pressed to find a more rock-solid operating system than this.
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If that sounds like you, head over to the GhostBSD site, download an ISO , and install it on a spare machine (or virtual machine). I'm fairly confident you'll be impressed.
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GhostBSD – A Simple Unix-like Desktop OS Based on FreeBSD
Brief: This article describes the basic instructions on installing GhostBSD using the graphical installer using DVD / USB method.
GhostBSD is an open-source Unix-like desktop operating system created upon the most recent release version of FreeBSD. GhostBSD purpose is to make the experience of FreeBSD easy and obtainable for the regular computer user by providing MATE and XFCE as the default desktop environment, but as of now, MATE is the only official DE.
GhostBSD comes with a graphical application to install software and updates, and most of the multimedia codes are pre-installed. The installer advantage OpenZFS makes it easy to install GhostBSD on ZFS with another operating system on the same disk and is appropriate for beginners who are new to FreeBSD.
With modest hardware requirements, GhostBSD is excellent for modern workstations and 64-bit single-board computer hardware.
Recently, the GhostBSD project has announced the availability of GhostBSD 22.06.18 , which is the new release that comes with a number of new improved features, better Nvidia driver support, and a number of desktop utilities.
The following are the recommended requirements.
- 64-bit processor
- 4 GB of RAM
- 15 GB of free hard drive space
- Network access
Let’s get started…
Installation of GhostBSD Operating System
1. First go to the official GhostBSD site and download the Mate Desktop installer for your system architecture, the installer media comes in iso format. So, select and download the installer image as per your choice and proceed further with the installation.
2. After downloading the GhostBSD installer image, create a bootable DVD using any third-party bootable software, or if you’re using a USB stick for this installation, you can create a bootable USB stick by using Unetbootin LiveUSB Creator or using any of these bootable USB creator tools.
3. After making bootable DVD / USB media, insert the GhostBSD Desktop installer and boot the system using DVD or USB and make sure to set boot priority as DVD or USB in BIOS. After a successful boot, you will be greeted with a boot screen.
Here you will get options to choose from. If nothing is selected, it will load the graphical installer default. Here we’re using graphical installation, so choose “ Install GhostBSD “.
4. The first initial screen shows the default language as English , you can use the drop-down menu to set the desired language for your installation and click next to continue.
5. Next select a keyboard layout and a model from the menu.
6. Setting the correct time zone for your system as per your location will allow it to automatically correct for any regional time changes and carry out other time zone-related functions properly.
7. Select the installation type by choosing “ full disk configuration “.
8. Choose the disk where GhostBSD is to be installed.
9. Select an available boot option.
10. Next, set your system root password which is required for system administration tasks such as installing software, configuring the system, and changing user settings.
11. Adding a user, setting system hostname and shell.
Once everything seems perfect, you can click Next to Start the installation.
12. Once installation finishes, click the Restart button to reboot your GhostBSD installation.
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In a Unix-like operating system, it’s very rare to see a good mint look like a desktop environment, GhostBSD has fulfilled our need for Unix based desktop environment under an open-source license.
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GhostBSD Review: Simple and Lightweight
Because there are so many different options out there for your free and open-source operating system, it can be hard to figure out what the best option is for you. Sifting between Linux distros is difficult – Debian and its derivatives, Ubuntu and its derivatives, Fedora, Arch, openSUSE, the list goes on. However, what if the best choice for you isn’t actually technically Linux? Here we review GhostBSD, a FreeBSD-based Unix OS designed for a simple desktop experience, to see if it’s the right fit for you.
Also read: Linux vs. BSD: Everything You Need to Know
GhostBSD First Impressions
One of the things that always strikes me when trying out a BSD OS is how similar they often feel. I know that Linux and BSD are both “Unix-like” operating systems, but it’s easy to forget that because the source code for things like GNOME, or in GhostBSD’s case MATE , are free and open, they’re easily ported to other operating systems like GhostBSD. It helps me focus on the changes that are meaningful, like how GhostBSD works under the hood and the choices the project made to accomplish the mission of providing a simple desktop OS for general use.
I immediately felt welcomed by GhostBSD. Aside from the techno-mumbo-jumbo that you get on first boot, where you have to choose how to start the system, it’s great to see that there’s a friendly-looking theme and presentation about the OS. It feels very much like a FOSS desktop OS that I’m used to, but it’s still reasonably friendly to use. This is important because giving your grandparents something that you’re familiar with on a laptop or desktop is a great way to help them out, but if it’s something that’s user-hostile in some way, they’ll just keep using their tablet that’s too small for them to see.
The GhostBSD Installation Process
Something I dislike about GhostBSD is the installation process. There isn’t an icon to install, so you have to jump into the terminal and run the gbi command. This method of getting to the installer is definitely not so user-friendly, leaving you to have to find the documentation to get it installed onto your system’s drive. I do find this a bit of a letdown.
The installer itself is also geared more toward a power user. If you don’t know what you’re doing, you could end up with a configuration that you don’t really want. For example, if you have another OS installed on your disk (very common with first-time users), it defaults to a full-disk installation rather than slotting into the open space on your disk, like Fedora would with its Anaconda installer, for example. Plus, you’d end up with Fish rather than Bash for your default shell, which isn’t great for beginners, as there are tons of guides written on Bash that may or may not work with Fish.
GhostBSD User Experience
Overall, as a Linux user, it’s easy to find my way around GhostBSD. The MATE desktop is familiar to me, as are most of the tools available in the OS. I particularly like that there are already four virtual desktops preconfigured, as those are now an integral part of my workflow and are what ultimately keep me drawn back to Linux and BSD.
Another virtue of the desktop environments that we love is the ability to customize and tweak to suit different needs. For example, you can move the titlebar buttons for close, minimize, and maximize from the right side to the left if you’d like, which is nice for macOS users.
There are also freedoms associated with updates and update mechanisms – you can either use pkg like you might use apt or dnf from the command line in Linux or use the GUI package management tools.
The applications that are installed are all necessary. It’s exactly what you might expect to find in your typical lean open-source desktop OS configuration, with no frills and just the essential applications.
There is not much to remark on with the user experience – it is a very simple and friendly version of the MATE desktop that’s designed to be light on system resources and simple to use. Overall, I think there is no way you could go wrong.
Make sure you check out some of our other Distro reviews, like Deepin , Clear Linux , or MX Linux .
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John is a young technical professional with a passion for educating users on the best ways to use their technology. He holds technical certifications covering topics ranging from computer hardware to cybersecurity to Linux system administration.
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- Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii
- v.26(4); 2022 Jul
Language: English | Russian
Investigation of genetic polymorphism of Russian rape and turnip rape varieties using SSR and SRAP markers
Изучение генетического полиморфизма российских сортов рапса и сурепицы с использованием ssr- и srap-маркеров, i.a. klimenko.
Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology, Lobnya, Moscow region, Russia
A.a. antonov, v.a. dushkin, a.o. shamustakimova, yu.m. yu.m. mavlyutov.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and turnip rape (B. rapa L. subsp. campestris (L.)) are important agricultural plants widely used for food, fodder and technical purposes and as green manure. Over the past decades, a large number of perspective varieties that are being currently cultivated in every region of Russia have been developed. To increase the breeding eff iciency and facilitate the seed production, modern molecular-genetic techniques should be introduced as means to estimate species and varietal diversity. The objective of the presented research study was to investigate DNA polymorphism of the rapeseed and turnip rape varieties developed at Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology and detect informative markers for varietal identif ication and genetic certif ication. To genotype 18 gDNA samples, 42 and 25 combinations of respective SSR and SRAP primers were used. The results obtained demonstrate that SRAP markers were more effective for polymorphism analysis: 36 % of the tested markers revealed genetic polymorphism compared with only 16.7 % of microsatellite loci. Molecular markers to detect differences at interspecif ic and intervarietal levels have also been found. For the investigated set, such microsatellite loci as Na12A02, Ni2C12, Ni02-D08a, Ra02-E01, Ni03H07а and SRAP-marker combinations as F13-R9, Me4- R7, F11-Em2, F10-R7, F9-Em2 and F9-R8 proved to be informative. Application of the two marker techniques made it possible to detect a higher level of DNA polymorphism in plants of different types (spring and winter varieties) if compared against the intervarietal differences within a species or a group. According to Nei’s genetic diversity index, in the cluster of winter rapeseed, VIK 2 and Gorizont varieties had the longest genetic distance, and in the spring cluster, these were Novosel and Veles. A high level of similarity was found between Vikros and Bizon winter rapeseed varieties. The results obtained have a high practical value for varietal specif ication of seed material and genetic certif ication of rapeseed and turnip rape varieties.
Рапс (Brassica napus L.) и сурепица (B. rapa L. subsp. campestris (L.)) – важные сельскохозяйственные культуры, широко используются для продовольственных, кормовых и технических целей, а также в качестве сидератов. За последние десятилетия создано большое количество перспективных сортов, культивируемых практически во всех регионах России. Для повышения эффективности селекционного процесса и успешного развития семеноводства необходимо внедрять современные молекулярно-генетические методы оценки видового и сортового разнообразия. Цель настоящей работы заключалась в изучении ДНК-полиморфизма сортов рапса и сурепицы селекции Федерального научного центра кормопроизводства и агроэкологии им. В.Р. Вильямса и выявлении информативных маркеров для сортовой идентификации и генетической паспортизации. Для генотипирования 18 образцов геномной ДНК использовали 42 и 25 комбинаций SSR- и SRAP-праймеров соответственно. Результаты показали, что маркеры SRAP более эффективны для анализа полиморфизма изучаемого материала: 36 % от общего числа испытанных маркеров демонстрировали генетический полиморфизм, тогда как для микросателлитных локусов этот показатель равнялся 16.7 %. Определены молекулярные маркеры для выявления различий на межвидовом и межсортовом уровнях. Информативными для исследуемой выборки сортов оказались микросателлитные локусы Na12A02, Ni2C12, Ni02-D08a, Ra02-E01, Ni03H07а и комбинации SRAP-маркеров F13-R9, Me4-R7, F11-Em2, F10-R7, F9-Em2 и F9-R8. Анализ сортового материала по двум системам маркирования показал более высокий уровень ДНК-полиморфизма у образцов растений разного типа развития (яровой/озимый) в сравнении с различиями между сортами в пределах вида или группы. Согласно индексам генетического разнообразия Нея, в кластере сортов озимого рапса наибольшей генетической удаленностью выделялись ВИК 2 и Горизонт, среди яровых – Новосёл и Велес. Высокий уровень сходства обнаружен между яровыми сортами рапса Викрос и Бизон. Полученная информация имеет практическое значение для контроля сортовой принадлежности и генетической паспортизации семенного материала сортов рапса и сурепицы.
Cabbage oilseed crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and turnip rape (B. rapa L. subsp. campestris (L.)) are cultivated in almost every region of Russia, and, for the foreseeable future, are regarded as the main reserve for increasing the production of vegetable oil and fodder protein. These plants are widely used in food, fodder, technical purposes and as green manure that increases soil fertility thanks to the plants’ root remains containing up to 6 tons of organic maters, 80 kg of nitrogen, 60 kg of phosphorus and 90 kg of potassium per hectare. As for their food and fodder properties, rapeseed and turnip rape exceed many other cultivated crops since their seeds are 40–48 % fat and 21–33 % protein and contain a high amount of essential amino acids (Volovik, 2015). Rapeseed can provide livestock with green forage from early spring to late fall thanks to their cold hardiness and fast regrowth after mowing. They are also an excellent silage material, and their seeds and seed by-pass products are processed to produce seed cake and coarse meal. In the recent years the varieties of rapeseed and turnip rape with low or no erucic-acid content became available and seed production has increased more than 7 times to reach the world’s third place after soybeans and cotton. Russia’s short-term plans are to increase rapeseed planting acreage to 2.5 mln he.
As for Russian research institutions working intensely to select cabbage oilseed crops, the leading ones are All-Russian Research Institute of Rapeseed, All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseed Crops and All-Russian Williams Fodder Research Institute. For the two last decades, they have produced the perspective varieties of rapeseed, turnip rape, white mustard and oil radish that have been recommended for oil production, livestock and poultry green forage, combination fodder, seed cake and coarse meal production. In 2021, “State Register” of the Russian Federation included 13 varieties of rapeseed and 3 varieties of turnip rape selected by Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology (Kosolapov et al., 2019; State Register…, 2021).
For preservation and rational use of newly available varieties, intensification of the selection process and protection of intellectual property, modern and effective methods to estimate species and varietal diversity at a genetic level are to be introduced. One of such techniques that has been successfully applied in the recent years is molecular DNA markers, which, if compared against the traditional morphological indicators, possess a number of advantages. These include a high level of polymorphism; even genome distribution; reliability; a possibility to automate the assay procedure that does not depend on environmental conditions or a plant development phase (Agarwal et al., 2008; Khlestkina, 2011; Chesnokov, 2018). If the most informative and convenient DNA markers are selected, their capabilities to estimate the genetic variability of selection material are regarded as unlimited.
Laboratory for Molecular and Genetic Studies in Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology has been developing a system for DNA identification and genetic certification of Russian fodder crops. For the time being, the varietal identification techniques have been adapted for perennial legume grasses such as red clover and different species of alfalfa (Klimenko et al., 2020a, b). The assay uses samples of the summary total DNA obtained through a modified method from an arbitrary selected sample of every variety’s germinants. Two types of molecular markers were used: SSR (simple sequence repeats), which detect the variability of microsatellite genome sequences, and SRAP (sequence related amplified polymorphism), which is based on PCR with a pair of primers for amplification of intron/exon regions (open reading frames). The techniques have been tested on different species of fodder crops to optimize the amplification conditions, detection and analysis of results.
A problem of reliable varietal identification is particularly topical for rapeseed due to its limited genetic variability conditioned by the intensive selection aimed at higher content and quality of oil. Currently, a significant number of published studies have been devoted to using different DNA markers for estimation of the genetic diversity of rapeseed varieties and hybrids (Plieske, Struss, 2001; Snowdon, Friedt, 2004; Klyachenko et al., 2018; Mozgova et al., 2019); to genetic mapping (Piquemal et al., 2005; Gao et al., 2007; Geng, 2012) and marking the genes of economically valuable traits (Chen et al., 2010; Ananga et al., 2012). However, only a few such studies have investigated Russian varieties. Four varieties of winter and spring rapeseed (Podmoskovniy, Vikros, VIK 2 and Severyanin) were studied by Byelorussian researchers to identify the gene alleles determining the concentration of oleic and linolic acids in rapeseed oil (Lemesh et al., 2015). The same varieties were investigated to detect the DNA markers of the genes responsible for erucic-acid synthesis (Amosova et al., 2014). Microsatellite markers were used to study the genetic polymorphism of Russian varieties Ratnik and SNK- 198 (Satina, 2010) as well as the genetic homogeneity of spring rapeseed varieties Bulat and Forward (Rogozhina et al., 2015). Such winter varieties as Stolychniy, Laureat, Gorizont, Nord and Severyanin were investigated to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with high winter hardiness (Mozgova et al., 2019).
The objective of the presented study was to investigate DNA polymorphism of rapeseed and turnip rape varieties developed by breeders of Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology and to identify the informative markers for varietal differentiation and genetic certification.
Materials and methods
Plant material. The study investigated 15 varieties of winter (Severyanin, Stolychniy, VIK 2, Nord, Laureat, Gorizont, Garant) and spring (Vikros, Novik, Novosel, Veles, Grant, Podmoskovniy, Lugovskoy, Bizon) rapeseed and 3 varieties of winter (Zarya) and spring (Nadezhda, Svetlana) turnip rape.
DNA extraction and PCR analysis. The gDNA was extracted from 30 germinants of each abovementioned variety (bulk samples) using the basic SDS method (Kirby, Cook, 1967; Dellaporta et al., 1983) with some modifications (Klimenko et al., 2020b). The quality and concentration of the obtained DNA fractions were verified with agarose gel (1.5 %) electrophoresis and using a Nabi spectrophotometer (MicroDigital, South Korea).
To carry out SSR analysis, 42 markers from the database Brassica info (https://www.brassica.info) and available publications were applied. The efficiency of the primers devised for these markers had been demonstrated in the studies devoted to development of the technology of rapeseed genotyping (Satina, 2010) and selection of the samples with low erucic-acid and glucosinolate content (Hasan et al., 2008). A part of the markers included in the analysis was used for hybridization control and detection of Alternaria blight resistant genotypes in Indian mustard (B. juncea L.) (Chandra et al., 2013; Sharma et al., 2018).
The PCR-mixture of 20 μl contained 3 μl 10 × PCR buffer (Taq Turbo Buffer), 0.5 μl 50 × dNTPs mix, 0.4 μl Taq polymerase (5U), forward and reverse primers (0.1 μl each, 100 μm) and 0.1 μl of DNA sample (20 ng/μl). The amplification was performed in a T-1000 thermal cycler (Bio-Rad, USA) at two different temperature regimes. The first amplification program was an initial 3-min denaturation at 95 °C followed by 30 cycles of 30 s at 94 °C, 30 s at 55–57 °C, 30 s at 72 °C and a final 5-min elongation at 72 °C (Satina, 2010). The second program included an initial 5-min denaturation at 95 °C followed by 39 cycles of 1 min at 94 °C, 2 min at 46–51 °C (depending on the primer pair in use), 2 min at 72 °C and a final 10-min elongation at 72 °C (Chandra et al., 2013). The reproducibility of obtained results was attested in three-fold replication.
SRAP analysis was carried out using 25 primer combinations comprised from 10 single oligonucleotides: F9, F13, Me4, F10, F11, R9, R7, Em2, R14, R8 (Li, Quiros, 2001; Rhouma et al., 2017). The amplification program was an initial 4-min denaturation at 94 °C followed by 10 cycles with changing temperature and duration parameters (1 min at 94 °C, 1 min at 35 °C, 1 min at 72 °C); followed by 30 cycles (1 min at 94 °C, 1 min at 50 °C, 1 min at 72 °C) and a final 5-min elongation step run at 72 °C. The PCR-mixture composition was similar to that used for the microsatellite analysis.
PCR-products were separated using 90-min 50-V agarosegel electrophoresis (4 % MetaPhorR Agarose, Rockland or 1.6 % LE, Lonza, USA). As the reference markers, 20 bp DNA Ruler (Bio-Rad), 100 kb DNA Ladder (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) and 100 bp + 1.5 kb (SibEnzyme, Russia) were applied.
Analysis of the obtained results. PCR-product detection and size measurement was performed using a GelDoc XR+ imaging system (Bio-Rad) and the ImageLab software (Bio- Rad Lab., Inc.) for molecular-mass markers. The obtained results were transformed into a binary matrix, and PopGene v. 1.32 (Yeh et al., 2000) was applied to determine such genetic diversity indices as the effective number of alleles per locus; Shannon’s index; expected heterozygosity; Nei’s genetic distance (Nei, Li, 1979). Polymorphism information content (PIC) for every pair of primers was calculated by the formula presented in the study (Chesnokov, Artemyeva, 2015). To build the genetic similarity dendrogram, the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages was applied in NTSYSpc v 2.10 (Rohlf, 2000).
To obtain gDNA from the rapeseed and turnip rape germinants, a modified SDS method was used. The applied protocol proved more effective and less costly compared to other known protocols and commercial reagents kits. The results of electrophoresis and spectrophotometry attested to the DNA’s high concentration and purification degree from protein compounds and polysaccharides for all experimental samples (Fig. 1, 2).
Lanes 1–15 (rape varieties): Severyanin, Stolychniy, VIK 2, Nord, Laureat, Gorizont, Garant, Vikros, Novik, Novosel, Veles, Grant, Podmoskovniy, Lugovskoy, Bizon; 16–18 (turnip rape varieties): Zarya, Nadezhda, Svetlana.
For genotyping the full variety collection, out of 42 SSR primers, 7 primers providing stable and reproducible amplification were selected (Table 1).
Analysis of the amplification fragments obtained using the listed primers detected 42 alleles. Their number per locus was 6 on average, varying from 3 (Ni2C12 and Bna.M.010) to 10 (Ra02-E01a). The fragment size varied from 110 bps (Ni2C12) to 1200 bps (Ni02-D08a). The maximum allele frequency was registered for Bna.M.010 (0.83), and the minimum – for Ni03H07a (0.27); the mean value was 0.42. The primers developed for Ni03H07a, Ni02-D08a and Ra02-E01a markers made it possible to detect 8–10 alleles per locus and had the highest PIC (0.82).
Based on the results of preliminary testing, the initial 25 combinations of SRAP primers were reduced to 10 pairs, amplifying stable polymorphic DNA fragments (Table 2). In total, 53 PCR fragments of 132–1674 nucleotide pairs in size were obtained. One combination contained from 4 (F9-R9) to 7 (F10-R8, F11-Em2, F10-R7) amplicons. A part of the markers proved to be informative to detect the amplification fragments for differentiating the type of plants (winter/ spring). Using 6 combinations made it possible to obtain the amplicons specific for varieties identification (marked with a star in the Table 2).
Fig. 3 demonstrates the electrophoregram of PCR results with the F9-R8 primer combination. Significant DNA profile differences were found between winter (I) and spring (II) rapeseed varieties (joined in curly brackets). The arrows mark the variety-specific PCR products characteristic for Stolychniy winter rapeseed (508 bps) and Nadezhda spring turnip rape (700 bps) as well as the absence of an amplicon in size of 460 bps in spring rapeseed Podmoskovniy though it was a specific characteristic for other varieties in this group. The performed analysis demonstrated that it is possible to identify rapeseed varieties Grant and Novosel with 3 marker combinations (F11-Em2, F10-R7 and Me4-R7), and Gorizont and Lugovskoy – with 2 (F13-R9 and Me4-R7). Variety VIK 2 was identified with SRAP primers F9-Em2, and spring ones Veles – with F10-R7. Specific DNA spectra for rapeseed varieties Stolychniy, Podmoskovniy and turnip rape Nadezhda were obtained with F9-R8 combination.
Winter rapeseed varieties: Severyanin (1), Stolychniy (2), VIK 2 (3), Nord (4), Laureat (5), Gorizont (6), Garant (7); spring rapeseed varieties: Vikros (8), Novik (9), Novosel (10), Veles (11), Grant (12), Podmoskovniy (13), Lugovskoy (14), Bizon (15). Winter turnip rape: Zarya (16); spring turnip rape: Nadezhda (17), Svetlana (18). H2O control (19). M – molecular weight marker (100 кb DNA Ladder).
The performed analysis demonstrated that it is possible to identify rapeseed varieties Grant and Novosel with 3 marker combinations (F11-Em2, F10-R7 and Me4-R7), and Gorizont and Lugovskoy – with 2 (F13-R9 and Me4-R7). Variety VIK 2 was identified with SRAP primers F9-Em2, and spring ones Veles – with F10-R7. Specific DNA spectra for rapeseed varieties Stolychniy, Podmoskovniy and turnip rape Nadezhda were obtained with F9-R8 combination
The obtained data were transformed into a binary matrix to calculate Nei’s genetic distances (Table 3). The lowest genetic similarity coefficient (0.7069) was found between rapeseed varieties Gorizont, Novosel and Grant, the highest – between spring varieties Vikros and Bizon (1.0) as well as Veles and Bizon (0.9655). A similarly high genetic distance (0.3228) indicated significant differences between pairs: Grant and VIK 2, and Lugovskoy and Stolychniy. Low distance values and high genetic similarity were demonstrated by spring varieties Bizon and Vikros (zero distance) and winter varieties Garant, Severyanin, Stolychniy, Nord, Laureat (0.0174).
Notе. According to the data of 1 (Rhouma et al., 2017); 2 (Сатина, 2010); 3 (Chandra et al., 2013).
The results of PCR analysis for SSR and SRAP markers were used to determine the genetic variability indices and build an UPGMA dendrogram depicting the varieties’ phylogenetic relationships. The variety material had a low degree of genetic heterogeneity, while higher values of expected heterozygosity (He) and the number of effective alleles (ne) were determined with SSR markers: 0.25 on average against 0.14 and 1.47 per locus if compared to 1.24, respectively. However, the SRAP method has enabled obtaining more PCR products applicable for varietal differentiation (Table 4).
Notе. No. 1–15 – rapeseed varieties Severyanin, Stolychniy, VIK 2, Nord, Laureat, Gorizont, Garant, Vikros, Novik, Novosel, Veles, Grant, Podmoskovniy, Lugovskoy, Bizon.
Analysis of the UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that the winter/spring rapeseed varieties were divided into two distinguishable clusters (Fig. 4). The first one united such winter cultivars as Severyanin, Garant, Stolychniy, Nord, Laureat, Gorizont, VIK 2; the second – all the spring ones. In the winter cluster VIK 2 and Gorizont were the most distant from the other varieties. The distances between Stolychniy, Nord, Laureat as well as between Garant and Severyanin were much shorter, which was confirmed by their high genetic similarity indices being 0.9655 and 0.9828, respectively (see Table 3). The most distant among spring rapeseed were twozero varieties Novosel, Grant and Lugovskoy, which had the longest genetic distances in the cluster (0.3469 and 0.3228). Bizon and Vikros belonged to one subgroup, sharing a common branch of the dendrogram.
The bulk strategy of DNA sampling from 30 germinants per variety has significantly reduced the labor efforts and cost of the research if compared to the traditional method of individual sample genotyping. The method has proved its efficiency for different cultures especially in large-scale studies of vast populations (Liu et al., 2018). However, this approach is only justified if the analyzed set of samples is representative. For cross-pollinating species with a high level of intrapopulation variations, it should include at least 30–50 plants per variety, which significantly increases the likelihood of registering a rare alleles, the occurrence of which in the population does not exceed 10 % (Crossa, 1989; Semerikov et al., 2002). The plants of winter rapeseed are known for their high self-pollination capacity (up to 70 % of flowers) (Shpaar, 2012), many varieties are linear; while in spring rapeseed this capacity reaches 40 % (Osipova, 1998). That’s why in our study we used budk samples that combined 30 seedlings from each variety.
A significant part of SSR primers tested in our study generated monomorphic amplification fragments. They did not allow us to properly estimate the genetic variability and had low reproducibility in replicated experiments. A proportion of the markers proven effective for intervarietal DNA polymorphism detection comprised 16.7 %, being much lower than in other studies (Plieske, Struss, 2001; Hasan et al., 2008; Tian et al., 2017). It was probably due to the composition of the tested collection that had a narrow genetic basis considering the varieties’ pedigree. At the same time, such parameters of genetic variability as the number of allelic variants, singleallele frequency, PIC and He were comparable to those found in published data (Satina, 2010; Klyachenko et al., 2018).
In general, the used markers made it possible to detect DNA polymorphism between rapeseed and turnip rape as well as between the winter and spring varieties within each species. However, Na12A02 marker turned out to be variety-specific for Bizon winter rapeseed and Zarya spring turnip rape, and Ra02-E01а – for VIK 2 winter rapeseed and Svetlana spring turnip rape. The unique alleles of Podmoskovniy and Lugovskoy rapeseed were detected using Ni02-D08a loci. The indicated markers can be used for varietal DNA identification and genetic certification.
SSR primers for the markers of Indian mustard’s Alternaria blight resistance genes (Chandra et al., 2013), such as Ni02- D08a, Ni03H07a and RA02-E01a, proved to be the most effective. Their application enabled us to detect the specific amplification fragments for linear winter rapeseed variety VIK 2. They also proved effective for Gorizont, which had been obtained on the base of VIK 2 by seed freezing followed by their selection at low-temperature stress. These two varieties share high winter hardiness and are resistant to Alternaria blight. Thereby the results of our study can be useful for further selection of perspective breeding material and QTL analysis on disease resistance.
Among the spring rapeseed, Veles variety turned out to be substantially different while Lugovskoy and Garant had many similarities in the studied microsatellite parts of regions of the genome. Veles is a new perspective variety that has been approved for use since 2021 and was selected based on Vikros using the method of chemical mutagenesis, producing a high frequency of nucleotide changes. This is possibly the reason for Veles having unique alleles in three loci: Ni2C12, Ra02- E01a, Na12A02. For Vikros variety, a specific DNA profile was also obtained with Ni2C12 marker.
Rapeseed Grant was selected using the method of interspecies and intervarietal hybridization of early-maturing foreign breeding samples and the high-yielding varieties Lugovskoy and Vikros, developed at Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology. Their common origin is probably the reason for the genetic similarity found between Grant and Lugovskoy varieties.
In general, SSR analysis failed to achieve optimum effect in identification of the investigated varieties: from the total set, including 42 primers for microsatellite genome loci, only four were attested as variety-specific for rapeseed, and only one (Ni03H07а) – for Nadezhda spring turnip rape.
For further investigation of DNA polymorphism, SRAP analysis was applied. SRAP is the third generation of molecular markers that were initially designed for the genes of B. oleracea L. (Li, Quiros, 2001) and are successfully used these days for genetic variability estimation and genetic mapping in different plants (Aneja et al., 2012; Rhouma et al., 2017; Liu et al., 2018). This is a cheap, effective and highly reproducible technique
2017; Liu et al., 2018). This is a cheap, effective and highly reproducible technique
The final dendrogram of phylogenetic relations made it possible to visually estimate the degrees of genetic similarities and differences of the studied material. For instance, close placing of such rapeseed varieties as Stolychniy, Nord and Laureat was probably determined by the features of their origin: they were selected for winter hardiness from a combination, in which one of the parental forms was Promin’, a well-known winter rapeseed variety
Garant, selected for winter hardiness, and Severyanin, which was obtained by seed freezing in a climatic chamber and the following individual-family selection, turned out to be in the common subgroup and at a short genetic distance (0.0174) from each other. In addition to high winter hardiness, these varieties are resistant to lodging and to damage by pathogenic fungi
A two-zero spring variety Novosel takes a special position in his group (Nei’s distance is 0.3469). Novosel was developed based on the foreign breeding samples and Russian varieties Lugovskoy and Vikros, characterized by early maturing and high yield. Specific properties of the new breeding achievement are shorter maturation period in comparison to standard varieties and high resistance to Alternaria blight.
Spring rapeseed Bizon and Vikros take the common branch of the dendrogram. The varieties were developed using the method of interspecies hybridization but from different parental forms; characterized by high yield productivity, early maturation and low glucosinolate content.
The presented study has proved the efficiency of SSR and SRAP markers for estimation of DNA polymorphism in rapeseed and turnip rape varieties developed in Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology. During the study, SRAP technique has demonstrated a higher level of informativity: 36 % of the tested markers were polymorphic, while for the microsatellite loci this rate did not exceed 16.7 %.
Both techniques of molecular analysis enabled detecting the DNA markers for identification of 10 out of 15 rapeseed varieties tested and for 2 turnip rape samples. Microsatellite loci Na12A02, Ni2C12, Ra02-E01 and Ni02-D08a allowed obtaining unique PCR products for Bizon, Veles, Vikros, VIK 2, Podmoskovniy and Lugovskoy rapeseed varieties. Marker Ni03H07а proved effective for identifying Nadezhda turnip rape. In the used SRAP test kit, such primers as F13-R9, Me4- R7, F11-Em2, F10-R7, F9-Em2 and F9-R8 proved effective for detecting variety-specific amplicons or obtaining unique DNA profiles for different types of plants (winter/spring) in rapeseed varieties Grant, Novosel, Gorizont, Stolychniy, Lugovskoy, Podmoskovniy and in spring turnip rape Svetlana.
The results of the study can be used for development of the perspective breeding samples and hybrids, for genetic certification and seed material purity control.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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The presented investigation was supported by the means of the federal budget, directed for performing the government assignment (project No. 0442-2019-0001АААА-А19-119122590053-0).
I.A. Klimenko, Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology, Lobnya, Moscow region, Russia .
V.T. Volovik, Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology, Lobnya, Moscow region, Russia .
A.A. Antonov, Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology, Lobnya, Moscow region, Russia .
V.A. Dushkin, Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology, Lobnya, Moscow region, Russia .
A.O. Shamustakimova, Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology, Lobnya, Moscow region, Russia .
Yu.M. Yu.M. Mavlyutov, Federal Williams Research Center of Forage Production and Agroecology, Lobnya, Moscow region, Russia .
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